The municipality of Pinamalayan has schools catering to all levels from primary to tertiary, including the recently implemented senior high school level. In total, the municipality has 39 elementary schools, 20 secondary schools, and five (5) tertiary schools. These institutions not only cater to residents of Pinamalayan but also to neighboring towns such as Pola, Socorro and Gloria.
The CBMS 2018 shows that 96.83 percent of the population is literate, or those that are able to read and write. This is 2 percent lower than the 2014 literacy rate. Considering male and female literacy, it was noted that both have high literacy rates, though that of the females is slightly higher.
Student-Teacher and Classroom Ratio
The Department of Education prescribes a 35:1 student-teacher and classroom ratio for elementary level while 40:1 in secondary level. In the case of Pinamalayan, average student-teacher ratio is 26:1 while average student-classroom ratio is 34:1. Both private and public elementary schools do not exceed the standard student-teacher and classroom ratio. However, Table SO-2 shows that in private and public junior high schools including public senior high school, both exceeded the prescribed student-classroom ratio. This implies that additional classrooms for secondary level are needed. Meanwhile, all schools adhere to the prescribed student-teacher ratio.
In the following tables, data presented are the latest student-teacher and student-classroom ratio SY 2020-2021 by level.
There are five tertiary schools in Pinamalayan and all are privately owned. In school year 2020-2021, EMA EMITS College Philippines posted the highest number of enrollees in first semesters. Before, courses offered here are exclusively education-related but through the years, this opened other courses from various fields. ABADA College, Pinamalayan Maritime Foundation and Technological College, Inc., and Institute of Business, Science and Medical Arts also offer primary and/or secondary education.
For the past two school years from 2019-2020 to 2020-2021, only enrolment in elementary is decreasing. In tertiary level, there was a significant increase due to the newly graduates of senior high schools for school year 2019-2020. The elementary level continues to have the largest share of enrollees in the past years.
Enrollment Participation Ratio
From elementary to tertiary levels, enrolment Participation Ratio (EPR) in school year 2019-200 is at 99 percent. This means that for every 100 children with ages 6-22, 99 are enrolled. The remaining 1 out of 100 children do not go to school, primarily because of poverty, disability, sickness among other reasons. This means that there is an arising need to address out-of-school youth concerns specially in the senior high school and tertiary levels. Furthermore, the tertiary level has the lowest EPR which is at 58 percent. On the contrary, elementary level has the highest EPR which is at 122 percent. This means that elementary schools cater to children ages 6-11 years old from other municipalities.
Inventory of Schools
Educational facilities are distributed in the 37 barangays, especially elementary schools. Only three barangays, Palayan, Sta. Maria and Sto. Niño, have no elementary schools. The elementary level students in these barangays are being catered by either Pagalagala or Nabuslot Central School. Of the 39 elementary schools, six are privately owned. Furthermore, five out of 17 secondary schools are privately managed. These private schools are concentrated in urban barangays.
Schools in Pinamalayan are equipped with different facilities available to the school-going population, but the quality and number of these vary. Among the facilities, laboratories (computer and science laboratory), libraries, canteen, and clinics should be enhanced in order to meet the needs of growing and dynamic school-going children.
In the elementary level, only six schools have laboratories where in one is in poor condition. The rest have no laboratories. Moreover, eight elementary schools have libraries, one of which are in poor condition. Most schools have no clinics except for those schools that are also offering secondary and tertiary education. Comfort rooms are sufficient in elementary schools due to a nearly 1:1 ratio of comfort rooms to classrooms. However, nearly 141 comfort rooms are in poor condition due to several factors such as insufficient water supply and dilapidated doors, door knobs, and toilet bowls. In public elementary schools, other facilities include perimeter fences, stages, gates and hand washing facilities.
In the secondary level, most schools have laboratories and libraries where the former are generally in good condition while the latter has significant number in poor condition. For the clinic and comfort rooms, the scenario is similar to that of the elementary level. Facilities such as multi-purpose halls or audio-visual rooms, gates, and perimeter fences are also present in secondary schools.
In the tertiary level, all facilities are in good condition.
Schools Exposed and at Risk to Hazards
Schools are often used as evacuation centers, where families and individuals seek temporary shelter, during occurrence of disasters in Pinamalayan. Hence, it is important to assess such facilities in order to know whether these are suitable to be used in time of crisis. As shown in Table, 14 schools are used as evacuation centers. There are five schools that are highly susceptible to flood and one in landslide. Of the schools that are highly susceptible to hazards, two schools are used as evacuation centers, namely Lumambayan Elementary School and Upper Bongol Elementary School in Pili.
In 2020, there are a total of 46 attending physicians in the municipality. About 38 are serving in private hospitals while 8 are serving in public health facilities. To support the attending physicians, the municipality has 36 nurses, 44 midwives, 1 sanitary inspector, and 99 other medical personnel. Based from the projected 2020 population, public doctor-population ratio is 1:11,338 individuals. Public nurse-population ratio is 1:5,669 individuals. Compared with the national standard of Rural Health Units (RHU), doctor-population ratio should be at 2:50,000 and over and nurse-population ratio should be at 4:50,000, Pinamalayan has an adequate number of attending physician and nurses.
Two out of five health facilities are publicly managed. One of which is the main health center located in the municipal compound offering several services as follows:
Preventive: maternal care, child care, family planning, nutrition program, infection disease control, environmental sanitation
Curative: out-patient consultation, birthing, dental care, mental health program
Others: diseases surveillance, medico-legal cases, drug testing, disaster management (as need arises)
Aside from these major health facilities located in urban areas, every barangay has its respective health center, usually located within the barangay compound. Despite the sufficient number of health personnel and health facilities, difficulty in serving Mangyan communities still persist due to distance as well as cultural differences.
General Health Indicators
Crude rates are statistical values that are used to measure the growth or decline of a population without regard to age or sex. Fertility and mortality indicators, as detailed in Table, declined in the last three years. There were no case of maternal mortality in both years.
For the past two consecutive years, the leading cause of morbidity in the municipality is Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI). ARI is contagious, preventing normal breathing functions and can spread from one person to another. In layman’s term this is referred as cold and/or flu. Following ARI were skin problem, hypertension, urinary tract infection and pulmonary tuberculosis.
Table shows that the leading causes of mortality or death. Heart-related diseases such as Cardio Vascular Arrest and Hypertension were the main cause of death followed by diabetes and multiple organ failure.
Pandemic Situation Report
The coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic is the defining global health crisis of our time and the greatest challenge we have faced since World War Two. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has created a global health crisis that has had a deep impact on the way we perceive our world and our everyday lives especially in the locality.
Based on the data from Municipal Health Office, there were 203 confirmed cases, 190 recoveries and only 5 deaths due to COVID-19 of the end of year 2020. Table shows that Barangay Zone III has the highest number of confirmed cases followed Barangay Papandayan, Marfrancisco and Zone I. On the other hand, there were confirmed deaths due to the corona virus diseases in four Barangays namely: Papandayan, Wawa, Zone II and Zone III. As to recoveries, the municipality recorded 94 percent recovery rates.
Stranded Individuals Data
Considering the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on global safety and travel, the movement of individuals between and within counties have been heavily reduce to curb the spread of the infection. The reduction in mobility as a result of the measures imposed by the national and local government to contain the spread of the virus have inadvertently created unintended consequences in cross-border movements that need to be addressed.
Table shows the total number of Locally Stranded Individuals (LSI), Authorized Personnel Outside Residence (APOR) and Returning Overseas Filipino (ROF). Recorded were 4,562 LSIs, 1,334 APORs and 309 ROFs.
Malnourished children comprise 5-6 percent of children aging 0-15 years old. In actual numbers, this ranges from >400 to >500 children. There are three degrees of malnutrition based on the Gomez classification which classifies protein-energy malnutrition in children based on percentage of expected weight-for-age. Above 90 percent weight-for-age is considered normal. First degree or mild malnutrition ranges from 76-90 percent, second degree or moderate malnutrition ranges from 61-75 percent, and third degree or severe malnutrition is below 60 percent. In the municipality, most of the malnourished children fall under moderate to severe degree of malnutrition. There is a total of 590 malnourished children in 2017 and dropped to 472 in 2018.
Sanitary Toilet Facilities
The most dominant type of toilet facilities in the municipality are sanitary toilets that can be categorized as water-sealed and closed pit. Combined, these are used by 17,045 of households or 90 percent of the total household population. Least common type of toilet is unsanitary toilet facilities, specifically the open pit and pail system which is used by only 248 and 2226 households, respectively. Barangay Pili accounts for majority of the open latrine type of toilet facility. Households with no toilet is at about 1,911 household. Table shows the number of households without sanitary toilet by barangay.
Burial grounds in the municipality also caters to nearby towns such as Soccoro, Pola, Gloria, and Bansud. The total inventory accounts five burial grounds in the municipality where in four are privately managed. As of 2016, two cemeteries are already congested, namely the public cemetery and Catholic cemetery. Hence, acquisition of lands and development of a new public cemetery is an urgent concern. Most of the constituents cannot afford the high costs of interment in private memorial parks even though they have the capacity to accommodate more burials.
Based from the CDRA, the Public Cemetery in Papandayan is exposed to moderate flood susceptibility while other cemeteries located in Papandayan and Quinabigan are exposed to low flood susceptibility. Public cemetery and Pinamalayan Memorial garden are nearby creeks which may pose health risks to nearby residents.
Based on records, the municipality produces about 35 tons of solid waste per day. Majority comes from domestic waste, followed by commercial waste while the least contributor of waste comes from hospitals. Out of generated solid wastes, 12 tons are collected by three garbage compactor trucks that make rounds every day in 15 barangays, including poblacion areas. Collected wastes are disposed in a controlled dumping site located at barangay Maningcol. The remaining barangays employ household and barangay level waste disposal thru composting and open pit. For hazardous waste coming from hospitals, an agreement among them was established to treat their own waste as prescribed by the Department of Health (DOH).
To augment waste disposal system, there is an existing Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) also located in barangay Maningcol. In addition to this, almost half of the barangays maintained their own MRF. The municipality also has a composting facility. As of 2017, the controlled dumpsite with an area of 3.7 hectares is partially closed due to non-compliance to Republic Act (RA) 9003, mandating all LGUs to develop a sanitary landfill. In partial compliance, the Municipal Environment and Natural Resources Office (MENRO) launched the “no segregation, no collection policy” in September 2017. A biodegradable shredding machine for composting purposes and plastic pulveriser has also been acquired to improve the solid waste management system.
For wastewater treatment, the municipality has no existing treatment facility. However, budget has already been allocated for the treatment of liquid wastes from market.
In 2008, housing units in total is 18,650. This grew to 18,956 as found out during the CBMS survey in 2018. Doubled-up households is non-prevalent in Pinamalayan based from 2010 PSA data due to a nearly 1:1 ratio of households to housing units which is the standard ratio prescribed. This implies that for every housing unit, there lives one household. Moreover, for every housing unit occupied, an average number of five occupants live (1:5).
There were three factors considered that would constitute housing backlog, these households are: (1) highly susceptible to flood and landslide based on the MGB map (2) Informal settlers based on CBMS 2014 and (3) Projected household formation. The first two was included given the assumption that they need relocation. For 2017, there is a need for 4,788 housing units in total. Land demand was also computed based on the average existing residential lot in the municipality which is 230 square meters and the prescribed lot for socialized housing which is at 64 square meters. With that, land requirement will be 70 hectares in 2017.
Table shows that there are a total of 316 households who are living in makeshift housing based on 2018 CBMS Data. Majority of these households found in Barangay Papandayan, Maliangcog, Marfancisco and Lumambayan. Makeshift housing whose roof or wall materials are made of salvage or improvised materials are those prone to destruction from strong wind and typhoons.
From 566 households in 2014, informal settlers grew to 1,357 in 2018. Most of them are located in barangays Papandayan, Marfrancisco, Pili, Sta. Isabel and Wawa. Most of the land occupied by these informal settlers are privately-owned.
The Municipal Social and Welfare Development Office (MSWDO) extends services to the informal settlers through housing projects, medical assistance, and financial assistance during typhoons.
Upon the CDRA, these informal settlers are at risk during disasters, especially to flooding.
Housing Facilities and Utilities
Based on the 2nd and 3rd round CBMS survey, the number of housing units served with water supply is only 41 percent or 7,805 housing units. Rendered service for electricity grew from 81 percent to 91 percent. Similarly, number of housing units with water-sealed toilets increased from 73 percent to 89 percent. Garbage collection also increased from 33 percent to 42 percent. Of the utilities, water supply has the lowest percent share of served housing units.
Housing Units by Condition of Building
In 2010, a total 13,598 or 70 percent of the households needs minor to no repairs. Moreover, 3,761 or 19 percent of occupied housing units need major repairs. Of these, majority or 1,093 are built from 2006 to 2010.
Tenure Status of Housing Units
In 2018, more than half of the housing units are owned which comprises 53 percent. It increased by 10 percent from 2014. This is followed by owned houses, with rent-free lots and consent of owner which covers 29 percent.
Residential Subdivision Projects
There are 14 subdivision projects on record in 2019 as shown by Table. There are four additional projects from 2015-2017 and 1 is under development. Most are of open market types, except the Habitat for Humanity in Zone II which is a housing project by a civic organization. In total, the projects account to 63 hectares composed of 2,424 lots. Upon assessment, most are susceptible to low and moderate flooding. Only one subdivision has low susceptibility to landslide.
As of 2018, there are a total of nine resettlement areas. Seven of these are owned by the government, barangay, and provincial government. In total there are 276 housing units in the resettlement areas which utilities include electricity, water, and other amenities such as basketball court, day care center (DCC), and chapel. These are under the management different stakeholders from both public and private sectors.
Based on the results of CDRA, Morente Ville is at high risk to flood. The MDRRMO identified the aforementioned resettlement as a fire risk area due to closely spaced houses and narrow access roads.
Inventory of Potential Lands for Housing
Potential lands for socialized housing were identified in barangays Sta. Isabel, Quinabigan, Papandayan, Marfrancisco, Guinhawa, and Pambisan Munti. These areas were selected to be ideal for relocation due to their proximity to the present location of informal settlers. In addition, topography is generally flat, has low flood susceptibility, and has access to existing provincial roads.
Facilities and Services
In Pinamalayan, facilities for specific age groups are present, such as day care centers for children and senior citizen centers for elders. There are a total of 59 daycare centers that are spread out in 37 barangays. Six is in critical condition and 11 are in poor condition while 43 are in good condition. In 2020, day care centers clientele reached a total of 1,680. Moreover, social services to the 7,620 elderly citizens are also present. The Office of the Senior Citizen’s Affairs (OSCA) was established in barangay Zone IV which is utilized by the entire elderly group.
Social Welfare Services
Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office offered a wide variety of services to the disadvantaged sector as mandated by the law. Table shows the number of clients served by these services in 2020.
Social Welfare Related Projects and Programs
To improve regular and basic social services, the MSWDO engaged in the continuous implementation of the various programs and projects listed in table. Aside from these, there are also infrastructure-related projects such as rehabilitation of the day care center located in the municipal compound as well as the construction of a covered court for senior citizens.
Facilities, Equipment, Personnel
Based on the 2018 projected population, the current ratio of policemen to population is approximately 1: 1,851 which is below the prescribed standard ratio 1: 1,000. Personnel from the Provincial Public Safety Company (PPSC) were not included in the computation since they also serve adjacent municipalities, namely Gloria, Pola, and Socorro. Furthermore, firefighter to population ratio is approximately 1: 3,360. Likewise, it is below the prescribed ratio which is 1: 2,000. There is only one jail guard for every six inmates (1:6) in Pinamalayan District Jail which adheres to the prescribed 1:7 ratio.
All of these facilities are located within the Poblacion area and are in good condition except for the Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP) headquarters which is in fair condition. Likewise, a new PPO building constructed in Barangay Cacawan provide the uniformed police force effective and efficient performance to their mandate to serve the people.
Current and Projected Personnel
As the population of Pinamalayan continues to grow, additional personnel will be needed to meet the prescribed standard ratio. Based on table, at year 2045, population will reach 117,186. By then, police force and fire force demand is 117 and 59 respectively. As for the jail personnel, projection if inmates could not be determined.
For year 2020, 18 fire incidence has been recorded. Among the barangays, fires frequently occurred in Marfrancisco and Zone IV. The usual cause of fires are electrical short circuits due to poor electrical wirings.
In years 2017 and 2018, crime incidence increased where in non-index type of crime is more prevalent. In 2018, Barangay Marfrancisco, Papandayan, Zone I, Zone II, Zone III and Sta. Rita were among the barangays with most crime incidence occurred. All of these are further detailed in table below.
There are parks, playgrounds, and recreational areas that are distributed in each barangay. Most of these are public basketball courts. However, some of these do not have enough space. As a result, they occupy portions of barangay road.
The Pinamalayan Theme Park is the largest park located in front of the municipal compound, occupying 2.10 ha. It holds most of the historically and culturally significant landmarks such as the Rainbow, Filipino-Chinese Friendship Arch, and the Dambana ng Kagitingan. It also houses several remarkable facilities like the auditorium, cultural area, basketball court, butterfly garden, mini-viewing deck, children’s playground, a garden with lagoon, gazebo, and skating rink.